I will then switch to animal perception, and the idea that it operates top-down, using models for prediction. This dates back to Helmholtz in the 1860s and was made explicit by Gregory in his 1980 paper "Perceptions as Hypotheses". It is now the dominant theory in many areas of CogSci, under the names "Predictive Processing" and "Free Energy".
I have previously argued that the perception components of autonomous systems should work in a similar way to maintain the models that are used to calculate the actions that control the system.
Here, I will briefly recap this and will then attempt to bring the threads together and suggest how we can assure these models and thereby deliver autonomous vehicles whose safety is at least conceivable.
Model-Centered Assurance For Autonomous Systems by Susmit Jha, John Rushby, and N. Shankar. Presented at SafeComp, September 2020. Published in Springer LNCS 12234.