author = {Gulley, Ned and Lakhani, Karim R.},
  title = {The Determinants of Individual Performance and Collective Value in Private-Collective Software Innovation},
  howpublished = {Harvard Business School Technology \& Operations Mgt. Unit},
  month = feb,
  year = {2010},
  url = {\url{http://ssrn.com/abstract=1550352}},
  note = {Working Paper No. 10-065},
  abstract = {We investigate if the actions by individuals in creating effective new innovations are aligned with the reuse of those innovations by others in a private-collective software development context. This relationship is studied in the setting of eleven ``wiki-like'' programming contests, where contest submissions are open for reuse by others, each involving more than one hundred contributors and several thousand attempts to generate, over a one-week period, the ``best'' software solution to a difficult programming challenge. We find that greater amounts of new code and novel recombinations of others' code, in a contest submission, increases both the probability of achieving top rank and the subsequent reuse by others in their own submission (community value). While, increasing use of borrowed code in a submission reduces the probability of achieving top rank, but increases the community value of the submission. Code structures that are more non-conforming to commonly accepted programming conventions similarly increase the probability of generating a top performer, but reduce subsequent reuse by others. Surprisingly, greater code complexity in a submission increases both the odds of generating a top performing entry and its community value. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of the literature on private-collective innovation with an emphasis on the importance of considering both individual and community perspectives as they relate to knowledge creation, reuse and recombination for innovation.}
  author = {Simone A.M. Geerts},
  title = {Discovering Crowdsourcing. {T}heory, Classification and Directions for use},
  school = {Department Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences. Technical University of Eindhoven},
  year = {2009},
  month = feb
  author = {Paul A. David and Matthijs den Besten},
  title = {Rivalry and the rules of the game in collective invention processes: Effort and performance by the ensemble of {MatLab} contest participants under alternative information access conditions},
  howpublished = {\url{http://siepr-new.stanford.edu/system/files/shared/s_MatLab-Contest_SU-SSTsem_v2_pad_mdb_11__2_.pdf}},
  month = jan,
  year = {2010}

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